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Economic Development

Texas in Focus: Gulf Coast Region

Economic Development

The largely urban Gulf Coast region contains the Houston metropolitan area, one of the nation’s largest. Long known as the energy capital of the world, Houston hosts the headquarters of several multinational energy companies, including Exxon-Mobil, Conoco-Phillips, Shell Oil and BP. In 2008, the Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown metropolitan statistical area’s (MSA) gross product totaled $435.9 billion. If Houston were a nation, its economy would be the 25th-largest in the world, just behind Norway.1

The Port of Houston is the nation’s busiest for foreign trade, transferring 155 million tons of goods worth $114.8 billion in 2007.2

If Houston were a nation, its economy would be the 25th-largest in the world, just behind Norway.

Areas outside of Houston also contribute to the region’s economic success. The non-metro counties of Colorado, Matagorda, Walker and Wharton support a variety of industries including retail trade, healthcare, accommodations and food services, manufacturing and others.

Rural business activity from 2004 to 2009 was supported by strong growth in commercial banking, which grew 23 percent to add 150 jobs in Gulf Coast non-metro counties. Machinery manufacturing nearly tripled during that period, adding 410 jobs to Gulf Coast non-metro counties.

In late 2008, the region’s coastal areas suffered employment losses from Hurricane Ike, with Galveston, Chambers and Matagorda counties losing a total of 5,040 jobs in the third and fourth quarters of that year. Harris County, slightly further from the coast, lost 4,866 jobs during the third quarter, while surrounding counties experienced less significant losses. Despite these declines, most counties in the region added jobs during the fourth quarter of 2008, giving the region a quarterly net gain of 20,459 jobs.3

Strong economic growth in the Gulf Coast region continues to outpace that of the state as a whole. Once resting almost solely on energy, the region’s economy has become highly diversified. Jobs in business, construction and manufacturing, hospitality and international trade help to make the Gulf Coast’s economy robust and competitive.

The area also boasts an impressive health care industry. The Texas Medical Center, located in Houston, is the world’s largest medical campus, with 13 hospitals as well as academic institutions that offer training for careers in medicine, nursing, dentistry, public health and pharmacy. With these resources at its disposal, the region’s health care services sector is poised for strong, continued growth over the next several years.4

Even as the region’s economy diversifies, its traditionally profitable energy sectors continue to expand. Between 2002 and 2008, jobs in oil and gas extraction grew from 36,617 to 47,881, a 31 percent increase. The U.S. energy industry experienced a record-setting boom during these years; Texas, for its part, nearly tripled the number of oil and gas rigs operating in the state.

In mid 2008, oil prices began to plunge, falling nearly 47 percent between June 2008 and August 2009. Natural gas prices fell by 74 percent during these months. Between the energy sector decline and the broader national recession, the Gulf Coast economy lost more than 70,000 jobs between 2008 and 2009. Over the past few months, oil prices have bounced back, and the Comptroller projects that the Gulf Coast will gain jobs in 2010 and follow a growth path through 2014.5

Exhibit 2

Gulf Coast Region Employment Indices, 2004-2014

see alternative

Note: Data after September 2009 are projected.
Sources: Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. and Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts.

View Employment Indices description.

The Texas Medical Center, located in Houston, is the world’s largest medical campus, with 13 hospitals as well as academic institutions that offer training for careers in medicine, nursing, dentistry, public health and pharmacy.

Exhibit 2 illustrates Gulf Coast employment growth from 2004 to 2009 and projected growth from 2010 to 2014. The employment index shown measures percent growth by comparing average employment in a given year to employment in the base year of 2004; an index of 125, for instance, would mean that employment has risen by 25 percent since 2004.

The region as a whole experienced substantial employment growth between 2004 and 2009, with job gains of 11 percent, outpacing the state’s growth rate of 10 percent. After a dip due to the recession, the Comptroller expects that the region’s job growth will continue to rise faster than the state’s. The Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown MSA is on pace with the region as a whole, with expected annual employment growth of 2.6 percent from 2009 to 2014.6

Oil and gas field machinery and equipment is the region’s most concentrated industry; the region’s share of these jobs is 26.83 times more concentrated than the nation’s.

Exhibit 3

Gulf Coast Region Industrial Employment Indices, 2004-2014

see alternative

Note: Data after September 2009 are projected.
Sources: Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. and Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts.

View Employment Indices description.

Growth by Industry

In 2009, Gulf Coast region employers provided a total of 2.6 million jobs, representing nearly a quarter of the jobs in Texas. Twenty-one percent of these were in the trade, transportation and utilities sector, the largest in the region. Exhibit 3 provides a detailed picture of projected employment trends in the region, with growth indices for various industries again using 2004 as the base year. Employment for these industries is presented at the 11-industry “supersector” level of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).7

A supersector, as identified by a two-digit NAICS code, represents an aggregation of industries producing related goods and services. At this level, industries are classified into either goods-producing or service-producing supersectors.

The goods-producing group comprises three supersectors – 1) agriculture, natural resources and mining; 2) construction; and 3) manufacturing. The service-producing group comprises eight supersectors including education and health; professional and business services; leisure and hospitality; finance; trade, transportation and utilities; other services; government; and information.

With the exception of the information supersector, all of these groups have seen job growth since 2004 and should continue to do so through 2014. Agriculture, natural resources and mining should be the fastest-growing industry, with an estimated 16 percent increase in employment by 2014, from 98,706 in 2009 to 114,501 jobs.

The vast majority of growth in this supersector is due to new jobs in oil and gas well drilling, oil and gas extraction and support activities. For example, jobs in the region’s support activities for oil and gas operations should rise from 25,523 to 31,149 between 2009 and 2014, a 22 percent increase. Significant growth in these occupations highlights the region’s continued strength as an energy hub.

Educational and health services are also expanding dramatically, with an expected employment increase of 23 percent from 2009 to 2014, from 276,400 to 338,977 jobs. Health care services employment is expanding across the board, accounting for 90 percent of the supersector’s growth during this period.

The fastest-growing health care group is ambulatory health care services, which should have 25 percent more jobs by 2014. This field, which includes physician and dentist offices, outpatient care centers, medical and diagnostic laboratories and home health care services, should employ 148,349 in 2014 versus 118,745 in 2009.

Within education, jobs at junior colleges will lead the way. The Comptroller estimates that employment in this category will rise by 50 percent over 2009-2014.

Employment in four other industries – professional and business services, leisure and hospitality, construction and government – should rise by more than 10 percent over this period. Within these categories, the fastest-growing occupation areas are business management, food and drink services, heavy and civil engineering construction and local government, respectively.

Trade, transportation and utilities, the region’s largest industry by far, should see employment rise by 9 percent, from 538,513 to 587,324 jobs. Most of these gains will be in wholesale and retail trade.

Other major industries that should experience moderate job gains through 2014 include other services, manufacturing and financial activities.

Economic Structure

Job growth depends upon a region’s underlying economic structure. That structure includes multiple factors including natural resources, labor force characteristics and the composition and concentration of the region’s industries.

This latter characteristic, also called clustering, is particularly important since industry clusters give firms within them access to more suppliers and a pool of skilled laborers with valuable knowledge and information.16 The benefits that result from high industry concentrations give a region its competitive edge.17

One tool that can be used to identify industry concentration is the “location quotient.” The location quotient identifies industry concentrations by comparing the share of a region’s economy attributable to a specific industry to the share that same industry accounts for in the nation’s economy.

In essence, the share an industry accounts for in the national economy is seen as the “norm” for that industry, so comparing that norm with its share of a regional economy indicates whether that region tends to have “a lot” or “a little” of a particular industry. Typically, a region will contain “a lot” of industries for which it has some natural or developed competitive advantage, based for instance on a local abundance of a particular resource, a favorable climate, an advantageous natural feature (such as proximity to a port), a highly educated labor force or some other factor.

A location quotient greater than one indicates a high regional employment concentration in an industry compared to the same industry at the national level. This means that the region is “more specialized” in that particular industry. A location quotient of less than one indicates that the region’s concentration in the industry is less than the nation’s. In essence, the region is less specialized in that industry.

Exhibit 4 lists the 50 most concentrated industries in the Gulf Coast region, grouped according to their respective NAICS supersectors and ranked from the highest to lowest location quotient within each supersector.18 Location quotients range from 3.29 all the way up to 26.83, indicating that these regional industries are highly concentrated compared to the nation as a whole – even the least concentrated industry on this list, other nonresidential exterior contractors, is 3.29 times more concentrated in the Gulf Coast region than in the rest of the nation.

Many of the region’s most specialized industries are energy-related; jobs in oil and gas extraction, oil and gas machinery and equipment and pipeline transportation of oil and natural gas all have location quotients higher than 10. Oil and gas field machinery and equipment is the region’s most concentrated industry; the region’s share of these jobs is 26.83 times more concentrated than the nation’s.

Other regional industries are strong as well. Manufacturing jobs play a prominent role, with 24 of the top 50 most concentrated industries related to manufacturing. Petrochemical manufacturing, for example, has a location quotient of 23.27. Businesses in the region manufacture a wide range of products, from dyes and pigments to plastics and computers, making for a manufacturing cluster that is both concentrated and multi-layered.

Transportation and trade-related industries are also well represented in the region; 14 of the 50 listed industries fall under the transportation, trade and utilities supersector. With high volumes of freight traffic coming in and out of the region’s ports, it is no surprise that industries such as marine cargo handling and deep-sea freight transportation are highly concentrated along the Gulf Coast.

Exhibit 4

The Gulf Coast Region’s Largest Industry Location Quotients, 2009

Agriculture, Natural Resources and Mining
Description NAICS
2009 Jobs 2009 Location Quotient
Natural gas liquid extraction 211112 2,321 21.84
Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction 211111 46,604 14.93
Drilling oil and gas wells 213111 18,245 11.30
Support activities for oil and gas operations 213112 25,523 6.39
Other chemical and fertilizer mineral mining 212393 227 3.88
Description NAICS
2009 Jobs 2009 Location Quotient
Oil and gas field machinery and equipment 333132 30,353 26.83
Petrochemical manufacturing 325110 12,029 23.27
Petroleum refineries 324110 13,093 9.06
Industrial valve manufacturing 332911 3,518 7.77
Fabricated pipe and pipe fitting manufacturing 332996 3,992 7.31
Ethyl alcohol manufacturing 325193 1,314 7.30
Industrial gas manufacturing 325120 2,363 6.74
Cyclic crude and intermediate manufacturing 325192 173 6.64
Rice milling 311212 510 6.15
Synthetic organic dye and pigment manufacturing 325132 701 5.71
Plastics material and resin manufacturing 325211 5,505 4.98
Plate work manufacturing 332313 4,385 4.88
Prefabricated metal buildings and components 332311 2,889 4.79
Alkalies and chlorine manufacturing 325181 747 4.75
Other miscellaneous chemical product manufacturing 325998 3,332 4.74
Switchgear and switchboard apparatus manufacturing 335313 2,760 4.66
All other basic organic chemical manufacturing 325199 3,041 4.54
Metal heat treating 332811 1,402 4.33
Plastics pipe and pipe fitting manufacturing 326122 2,272 4.16
Iron and steel forging 332111 1,826 4.05
Electronic computer manufacturing 334111 7,176 4.05
Steel wire drawing 331222 640 4.04
Carbon black manufacturing 325182 122 3.63
Gasket, packing, and sealing device manufacturing 339991 1,953 3.31
Description NAICS
2009 Jobs 2009 Location Quotient
Oil and gas pipeline construction 237120 16,474 8.17
Industrial building construction 236210 21,457 6.45
Other heavy construction 237990 6,806 3.45
Other nonresidential exterior contractors 238192 1,871 3.29
Trade, Transportation and Utilities
Description NAICS
2009 Jobs 2009 Location Quotient
Pipeline transportation of crude oil 486110 2,680 15.96
Pipeline transportation of natural gas 486210 5,698 11.05
Marine cargo handling 488320 6,338 7.58
Deep sea freight transportation 483111 1,399 6.73
Hydroelectric power generation 221111 4,968 6.53
All other pipeline transportation 486990 55 6.33
Other electric power generation 221119 1,180 5.85
Nonscheduled air passenger chartering 481211 3,284 5.11
Navigational services to shipping 488330 1,554 4.24
Inland water freight transportation 483211 1,549 4.07
Packing and crating 488991 1,410 3.98
Other support activities for water transportation 488390 639 3.43
Industrial machinery merchant wholesalers 423830 19,926 3.38
Coal and other mineral merchant wholesalers 423520 155 3.31
Description NAICS
2009 Location
Other telecommunications 517910 615 4.42
Financial Activities
Description NAICS
2009 Jobs 2009 Location Quotient
Other heavy machinery rental and leasing 532412 4,271 3.97
Professional and Business Services
Description NAICS
2009 Jobs 2009 Location Quotient
Geophysical surveying and mapping services 541360 4,770 13.87

Source: Economic Modeling Specialists Inc.

Most Competitive Industries

While location quotients provide important information on regional industry concentrations, they offer only a snapshot – a static measure at a particular point in time. To assess the competitive resilience of a regional industry, a more dynamic measure is needed. One such measure is “shift-share analysis.”

In this analysis, the change in an industry’s regional presence is divided into three components: the portion attributable to the overall growth or decline in the nation’s economy (the national growth effect); that attributable to the difference between the national trend for an industry and the national trend for all industries (the industry mix effect); and that attributable to the region’s competitiveness as a site for the industry (the regional competitiveness effect).

Exhibit 5 lists the Gulf Coast region’s most competitive industries based on shift-share analysis. The industries are ranked based on their employment change in the regional competitiveness component (and thus the industry’s comparative advantage in the region) between 2004 and 2009.

Temporary help services in the professional and business sector ranked highest in the regional competitive effect but experienced a national decline relative to other industries. Local government, which includes public schools, experienced the most growth of any industry during this period, gaining 19,945 jobs, or 8 percent, overall. Growth in the industry reflects rapid population growth; the Gulf Coast’s population rose by 10 percent between 2004 and 2008, compared with a statewide rise of 8.5 percent and national growth of only 5.2 percent.19

Local government also ranked second-highest according to the regional competitive effect, with a gain of 9,157. The regional competitive effect accounted for almost half of the industry’s growth during this time, indicating that economic conditions unique to the region spurred sector growth.

The Gulf Coast region experienced considerable job growth in professional and business services between 2004 and 2009. Nine of the 50 most competitive professions fall under this supersector. Local factors such as favorable wage rates likely contributed to job growth in professional and business services.

Jobs in trade, transportation and utilities also have a strong comparative advantage in the Gulf Coast, with ten of the professions on this list belonging to these industries. Educational and health services and energy, construction and manufacturing also draw workers to the Gulf Coast region, giving it a competitive edge in these sectors.

Exhibit 6 lists the five most competitive industries in the Houston MSA and the region’s non-metro counties.

Exhibit 6

Gulf Coast Region, Five Most Competitive Industries by Area

Houston MSA
Description Supersector Industry National Growth Effect Industry Mix Effect Regional Competitive Effect Total Jobs Added Since 2003
Temporary help services Professional and Business Services 296 (11,578) 12,029 747
Local government Government 1,532 8,888 9,288 19,708
Full-service restaurants Leisure and Hospitality 474 5,089 6,849 12,412
Limited-service restaurants Leisure and Hospitality 373 3,818 5,949 10,140
Offices of physicians, except mental health Educational and Healthcare Services 205 3,856 5,181 9,242
Non-Metro Counties
Description Supersector Industry National Growth Effect Industry Mix Effect Regional Competitive Effect Total Jobs Added Since 2003
State government Government 65 242 666 973
Oil and gas field machinery and equipment Manufacturing 0 19 211 230
Construction sand and gravel mining Agriculture, Natural Resources and Mining 0 (9) 191 182
Nuclear electric power generation Trade, Transportation and Utilities 7 3 179 189
Other building material dealers Trade, Transportation and Utilities 1 (32) 159 128

Source: Economic Modeling Specialists Inc.

Good Jobs for the Future

Shift-share analysis identifies the region’s most competitive industries – those that possess the best chances for increased employment opportunities. But what types of occupations can Gulf Coast residents expect to find within these industries?

Exhibit 7 presents a list of “good jobs” for the region’s future, grouping them based on their educational requirements.

For the purpose of this analysis, a “good job” is one for which average annual earnings, as reported by the Texas Workforce Commission, exceed the state’s 2008 average per capita personal income of $37,774.20 In the Gulf Coast region, 376 occupations pay more than this amount.

Occupations requiring both a college degree and work experience command the highest annual earnings, with weighted average earnings of $109,466 for the region. Occupations requiring doctoral or professional degrees provide the second-highest earnings, with weighted average earnings of $107,258. Occupations requiring a master’s degree ranked third, with a weighted average of $74,172.

Bachelor’s degree occupations offer weighted average earnings of $69,635, while associate degree occupations have weighted average earnings of $57,888. Many occupations in the Gulf Coast region requiring an associate degree, however, compare favorably with those requiring a bachelor’s degree (without work experience).

It should be noted that many of the region’s occupations that meet the “good jobs” definition do not require a college degree. A number that require related work experience, on-the-job-training or postsecondary vocational training also provide good wages. Jobs requiring moderate-term on-the-job training but no postsecondary education provide weighted average earnings of $52,292. Occupations requiring postsecondary vocational training provide weighted average earnings of $45,502 annually.

Exhibit 8 lists 25 occupations expected to have the highest number of job openings in the Gulf Coast region between 2009 and 2014. Retail salespersons top the list, with 22,413 new job openings from 2009 to 2014 and average annual earnings of $23,962.23

Seventeen of the 25 occupations require only short- or moderate-term on-the-job training. These provide average annual earnings ranging between $15,954 and $65,229. Three occupations require a bachelor’s degree, including elementary school teachers, secondary school teachers and accountants and auditors. One occupation, postsecondary teaching, requires a graduate degree.

Exhibit 8

Occupations with the Most Projected Job Openings, Gulf Coast Region, 2009-2014

Rank Description 2009 Jobs 2014 Jobs Total Job Openings Growth Replacement 2009 Median Annual Earnings
1 Retail salespersons 79,316 89,519 10,203 12,210 22,413 $23,962
2 Waiters and waitresses 43,925 52,868 8,943 11,931 20,874 $17,285
3 Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 63,994 77,737 13,743 6,068 19,811 $16,307
4 Cashiers, except gaming 59,609 62,711 3,102 15,179 18,281 $17,472
5 Customer service representatives 52,400 61,673 9,273 7,296 16,569 $29,973
6 Registered nurses 42,954 53,195 10,241 3,545 13,786 $65,686
7 Elementary school teachers, except special education 36,784 43,993 7,209 4,016 11,225 $47,359
8 Office clerks, general 48,095 54,793 6,698 4,413 11,111 $25,147
9 Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 38,883 42,215 3,332 6,222 9,554 $22,318
10 Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners 42,646 47,943 5,297 4,082 9,379 $18,595
11 Executive secretaries and administrative assistants 38,083 43,533 5,450 3,032 8,482 $42,640
12 General and operations managers 40,974 44,180 3,206 4,939 8,145 $117,146
13 Personal and home care aides 22,274 28,406 6,132 1,887 8,019 $15,954
14 Postsecondary teachers 24,081 29,788 5,707 2,013 7,720 $88,055
15 Secretaries, except legal, medical, and executive 45,672 49,468 3,796 3,636 7,432 $27,976
16 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 32,293 36,861 4,568 2,527 7,095 $33,966
17 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products


34,373 3,398 3,418 6,816 $65,229
18 Cooks, restaurant 19,432 23,590 4,158 2,632 6,790 $18,970
19 Secondary school teachers, except special and vocational education 21,640 24,976 3,336 3,222 6,558 $50,265
20 Construction laborers 34,095 39,343 5,248 1,283 6,531 $23,192
21 Security guards 22,745 26,708 3,963 2,308 6,271 $24,253
22 First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers 29,634 32,782 3,148 3,058 6,206 $51,709
23 Accountants and auditors 23,641 27,570 3,929 2,080 6,009 $67,995
24 Stock clerks and order fillers 31,782 32,647 865 4,990 5,855 $23,192
25 Truck drivers, heavy and tractor-trailer 28,720 31,788 3,068 2,548 5,616 $35,693

Sources: Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc., Texas Workforce Commission and Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts

Comptroller Assistance

One of the many functions of the Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts is to analyze demographics, labor force statistics and other economic factors that support local economic growth, and to provide this information to local governments and other groups. Through its Texas EDGE (Economic Data for Growth and Expansion) program, the agency can identify occupational and industry trends and their effects on local and regional economies.

Since August 2008, the Comptroller has responded to 698 Texas EDGE requests from city and county government officials, economic development corporations, private businesses and members of the media. These requests have covered many topics including demographics, economic development, economic modeling and taxes.

The Comptroller also can provide local demographic data, identify business clusters and provide maps of regional roadways and waterways. For assistance, please visit Texas EDGE (Economic Data for Growth and Expansion) or e-mail

The agency also provides local governments with information about tax-related programs and helps them identify opportunities to raise funds for economic development efforts through property, sales and franchise tax revenues, exemptions and credits. The agency also provides information on special assessments and other opportunities related to disaster relief.

The Comptroller’s Texas Ahead Web portal provides information on tax programs and incentives, best practices and economic indicators, as well as reports and publications such as a recent report on Texas work force training, Texas Works. Texas EDGE also allows users to build customized models using region-specific data of their choice.

Finally, the Comptroller’s State Energy Conservation Office (SECO) can help local governments slash their energy costs and adopt cost-effective clean energy technologies. SECO offers local governments a free preliminary energy audit of their facilities. These audits provide recommendations for reducing electricity consumption by improving the efficiency of heating and air conditioning systems and lighting. For assistance, please visit the SECO website

SECO is anticipating $290.2 million in federal funds through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to help local governments save energy, create or retain jobs in the community, increase energy generation from renewable resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Industry Profiles

ConocoPhillips Sweeny Refinery, Brazoria County

PHOTO: ConocoPhillips


All links were valid at the time of publication. Changes to web sites not maintained by the office of the Texas Comptroller may not be reflected in the links below.

  • 1 Greater Houston Partnership, “Houston Area Profile,” (last visited January 11, 2010); and International Monetary Fund, “World Economic Outlook Database,” (Last visited October 7, 2009.) Custom query created for gross domestic product by country.
  • 2 Port of Houston Authority Origination Division, “Trade Statistics,” (Last visited January 11, 2010.)
  • 3 Texas Workforce Commission, “Quarterly Employment and Wages (QCEW),” (Last visited December 4, 2009.) Custom query created.
  • 4 Texas Medical Center, “About the Texas Medical Center,” (Last visited January 11, 2010.)
  • 5 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, “Tough Times for Oil and Gas,” Fiscal Notes, November 2009, pp. 1, 8-9, 11, (last visited January 11, 2010); and regional data provided by Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc.
  • 6 As defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, the Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown MSA contains San Jacinto County and nine other counties. As San Jacinto County is not located within the Gulf Coast region, it is excluded from the Houston MSA for the purpose of this analysis.
  • 7 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “NAICS Supersectors for CES Program,” (Last visited January 11, 2010.)
  • 8 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Hurricane Ike Impact Report (Washington, DC, December 8, 2008), p. 1, (Last visited January 13, 2010.)
  • 9 Texas Department of Public Safety, “DR-1791-TX Hurricane Ike: Declared Counties,”; and Federal Emergency Management Agency, Hurricane Ike One Year Later – Progress, Partnership, Preparedness (Washington, D.C., September 2009), p. 1, (Last visited January 14, 2010.)
  • 10 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Hurricane Ike Impact Report, pp. 29, 34, 36, 38.
  • 11 Texas Workforce Commission, “Hurricane Disaster Aid Available for 29 Texas Coastal Counties,” Austin, Texas, September 15, 2008, (Last visited January 13, 2010.) (Press release.)
  • 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Hurricane Ike Impact Report, p. 18; and Federal Emergency Management Agency, Hurricane Ike One Year Later – Progress, Partnership, Preparedness, p. 1.
  • 13 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Hurricane Ike Impact Report, pp. 22-23; and Federal Emergency Management Agency, Hurricane Ike One Year Later – Progress, Partnership, Preparedness, p. 1.
  • 14 Data and analysis provided by Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts.
  • 15 Email communication from Doyle Fuchs, market news specialist, Texas Department of Agriculture, October 16, 2009 with attached file from Texas A&M Agrilife Extension Service; and email communication from Doyle Fuchs, market news specialist, Texas Department of Agriculture, January 22, 2010 with attached Excel files from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service and USDA 2007 Census of Agriculture. Calculations by Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts.
  • 16 National Governors Association, A Governor’s Guide to Cluster-Based Economic Development (Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 9, (Last visited January 11, 2010.)
  • 17 Laila Assanie and Mine Yücel, “Industry Clusters Shape Texas Economy,” Southwest Economy (September/October 2007), pp. 1-8, (Last visited January 11, 2010.)
  • 18 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “NAICS Supersectors for CES Program.”
  • 19 U.S. Census Bureau, custom query for Texas Gulf Coast region counties; and “Annual Estimates of Housing Units for the United States and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 (HU-EST 2008-01),”; “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008,”, custom query for Texas Gulf Coast region counties; and “Annual Estimates of Housing Units for the United States and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 (HU-EST 2008-01),” (Last visited January 11, 2010.)
  • 20 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, “State Annual Personal Income: SA1-3, SA51-52 – Summary Personal Income and Disposable Personal Income,” (Last visited October 27, 2009.) Custom queries created.
  • 21 Art Leatherwood, “Brahman Cattle,” in Handbook of Texas Online (Austin, Texas: Texas State Historical Association, 2009); J.D. Hudgins Inc., “Ranch History,”; Oklahoma State University, Department of Animal Science, “Brahman,”; and American Brahman Breeders Association, “Breeders on the Web,” (last visited January 13, 2010).
  • 23 Data provided by Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc., “Fastest Growing Occupations”; and Texas Workforce Commission, “Wages by Profession,” (Last visited October 28, 2009.) Custom queries created.
  • 24, “10 Top American Boardwalks: From East Coast Classics to West Coast Promenades,” by Geoffrey Warren-Boulton, http://; ABC 13, “Kemah Boardwalk is Back in Action,” by Gene Apodaca, section=news/local&id=6553449&pt=print; Kemah Boardwalk, “Restaurants,” “Amusements,” “Contact Us,”, “2010 Calendar of Events,”, and “Boardwalk Beast,”; and Shawn Farrell, “That Puny Bullet Shot Me Right in the Foot,” Galveston County Daily News (September 29, 2007), (Last visited February 11, 2010.)
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